Sunday, February 18, 2018

Recruits wanted

In the fourth year of the War there was still a need of new recruits as this article in the Pakenham Gazette of February 8, 1918 reports. However, some people were of the opinion that the Australian authorities were too fussy and that a man must almost have the physique of a trained athlete to be accepted for service. 

Recruits Wanted  
With a view to getting recruits it has been decided to hold a number of meetings throughout the electorate of Flinders, of which Pakenham forms part, and Sir William Irvine is to be asked to address several of these meetings. Unable, in view of the immediate necessity of raising fresh drafts of troops for overseas service, to allow the existing position in regard to recruiting to continue indefinitely, the Government is now engaged in formulating a new plan of action (says the "Age"). 

With men so urgently needed, it is only to be expected that the authorities will thoroughly overhaul the existing  recruiting machinery. At the present time an exhaustive examination is being made of all records dealing with the rejection of enlisted men for alleged physical defects. It is a well known fact that thousands of men have been sent back to Australia from England without ever having heard a shot fired, the reason given being that the men were not considered physically capable of standing the strain of field service.  

In some quarters it is felt that the A.I.F. medical authorities in England have been far too severe in the medical tests applied to men prior to their embarkation for France. One effect of their action, at any rate, has been to raise to an extraordinary high pitch the medical standard applied to volunteers in Australia, as, naturally, the Authorities here were not prepared to accept men who, after costing the country some hundreds of pounds to train, might be promptly rejected by the Australian army medical authorities in England. So strict have the authorities in the Commonwealth now become that it is stated that a man must almost have the physique of a trained athlete to be accepted for service.

The Director General of Recruiting has publicly expressed his opinion that the matter requires investigation, and the claim which he makes would seem to be supported by the fact that dozens of Australians who have been refused enlistment in Australia have gone home to England at their own expense and been accepted for service by the British authorities.

You can read the article here 

Tuesday, January 16, 2018

Koo Wee Rup North State School's brave teachers

After the First World War the Education Department of Victoria published a book called The Education Department's Record of War Service 1914-1919. There were two teachers listed who had taught locally and they had both been at Koo Wee Rup North State School. By coincidence, both of them were awarded medals for bravery - Captain Frank McNamara received the Victoria Cross and Captain William Wilson received the Military Cross. There were 64 Victoria Cross medals and around 2,400 Military Cross medals awarded in the First World War. The Koo Wee Rup North State School opened in July 1894 and closed in November 1959.

What follows is the extract and the photos from The Education Department's Record of War Service 1914-1919 book on the two soldiers.*

Captain Frank H. McNamara, V.C
Captain McNamara was the son of Mr. F. McNamara of ‘Moondyne’, Royal Parade, Caulfield.  On 2nd August 1915, he was selected with seven other officers of the Permanent and Citizens Forces for the third course in Military Aeronautics at the Central Flying School at Point Cook.  Officers so trained were then due to be attached to the Indian Army for duty in Mesopotamia.  The Commonwealth, however, offered to form a complete squadron, and this offer was accepted by the Imperial Authorities.  The squadron was formed in January 1916, and it sailed on the Orsova on the 16th of March.  He disembarked at Egypt on 24th of April, and on the 28th of the same month proceeded to England for training.  He returned to Egypt on the 28th of August, and joined No.1 Squadron at Heliopolis.  On 21st of October, he joined the 67th Squadron at Kantara.  On 20th of March, 1917 he was wounded in action, and was evacuated to the hospital at Abbassia.  Later, he was promoted Captain and Flight Commander of the 71st Squadron, and served in Sinai and Palestine.  He returned to Australia as an invalid on the transport Boorara on the 27th of September.
Deed for which the Victoria Cross was awarded – ‘For most conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty during an aerial bomb attack upon a hostile construction train, when one of our pilots was forced to land behind the enemy’s lines.  Lieutenant McNamara, observing this pilot’s predicament and the fact that hostile cavalry was approaching, descended to his rescue.  He did this under heavy rifle-fire, and in spite of the fact that he himself had been severely wounded in the thigh.  He landed about 200 yards from the damaged machine, the pilot of which climbed on to Lieutenant McNamara’s machine, and an attempt was made to rise.  Owing, however, to his disabled leg, he was unable to keep his machine straight, and it turned over.  The two officers, having extricated themselves, immediately set fire to the machine, and made their way across to the damaged machine, which they succeeded in starting.  Finally, Lieutenant McNamara, although weak from loss of blood, flew this machine back to the aerodrome, a distance of 70 miles, thus completing his comrade’s rescue.’ Prior to enlisting, he was teaching at School No. 3198, North Koo-wee-rup.

Captain McNamara was the first Australian Airman to receive the Victoria Cross. He was born in Rushworth in 1894, the son of William McNamara and Rosanna O’Meara. He attended Shepparton Agricultural High School. In 1924 he married Hélène Marcelle Bluntschli of Brussels whom he had met in Egypt during the War and they had two children. After the War he served with the newly formed RAAF and was the Officer in Command at the Flight Training School at Point Cook and later at the RAAF base at Laverton. In World War Two he was promoted to Air Vice Marshall and, in 1942, moved to England where he worked with the RAF. Captain McNamara died in England in 1961. There is a bust of Frank McNamara in Rushworth and even though he only had a short connection to Koo Wee Rup, I am claiming him as Koo Wee Rup’s VC recipient!

Captain William G. Wilson, M.C
Killed in Action on 30th September, 1918. Captain W.G Wilson, M.C., late head teacher at Koo Wee Rup North. His widow, Mrs Lilias Wilson, lives at ‘Whroo’ Tooronga Road, East Malvern. William George Wilson was born on 19th September, 1882. He became a junior teacher at Moora South in 1901 and was head teacher at Lalbert Road from 1905 to 1908, then at Harrow till 1911 and at Koo Wee Rup North till 1912. He was an excellent teacher. In 1909, he received an official letter expressing the Director’s appreciation of the good work he was doing, and the success that had attended his well-directed and zealous efforts to secure the whole-hearted co-operation of parents and pupils. He enlisted in June 1915 and proceeded to camp early in July. After serving about six months and passing successfully through the Officers’ Training School, he obtained his commission. He embarked for Egypt on the 7th of March,1916. After spending some four or five months in Egypt, he embarked for England on the 29th of July 1916, going through France. He was Instructing Officer in the 14th Training Battalion for some time, and was chosen with other Australian officers to attend a three weeks’ course at Chelsea Barracks, London.  He passed the examinations successfully. On the 4th of November he embarked for France and was serving on the Somme some months when he contracted trench fever. After two weeks in hospital, he again rejoined his Company, and was in the line till the 24th March, when he crossed to England and was in hospital for four weeks, suffering from another attack of trench fever. Until the 4th of November, 1917 he remained in England, training and embarking reinforcements for France. On that date he again returned to France and was there in the line for a few weeks until he was prompted Captain (28h November).  He remained in line as officer in command of A Company. On 28th July 1918 he led his company so successfully through an engagement that he was awarded the Military Cross. The following is an account in the London Gazette of the deed for which he was awarded the Military Cross - ‘For conspicuous gallantry and initiative. He led his company forward during an attack with great judgement and skill, under heavy fire. Though there was a gap of several yards between his flank and the unit on his left, he pushed on and reached the objective with very small casualties. His courage and splendid example of determination materially contributed to the success of the operation’.

Captain Wilson had married Lilias McLennan in 1907 and they had four children, James (b. 1908, Roy (1909), Marie (1911) and Kenneth (1913), so when William was Killed in Action in France, Lilias was left a widow with four children aged from five to 10 years old.

*I am indebted to Polly Freeman, of the Cranbourne Shire Historical Society for bringing these two men to my attention.

Tuesday, January 2, 2018

Cardinia tree plantation in honor of local soldiers

On Arbor Day, July 6, 1917 trees were planted at the Cardinia State School, in honor of the boys of this district who have responded nobly to the country's call. These weren't the only trees planted on this day in honor of  local soldiers, a grove was also planted at Tynong State School, you can read about that, here.

The event was reported in the South Bourke and Morningon Journal on July 19, 1917.

South Bourke and Mornington Journal  July 19, 1917

Here is the transcript of the article - At the invitation of the head teacher, Mr Sumpton, a most enthusiastic gathering of residents of Cardinia met at the school on Arbor Day, 6th July, for the purposes of planting trees in honor of the boys of this district who have responded nobly to the country's call. Before adjourning to the grounds, the visitors had the pleasure of listening to very interesting and instructive speeches  on the cultivation of trees by Mr Duff (Chairman),  Rev F. Betchers, Messrs Simpson Hill and Walter Moxon, also some fine essays from the school children, which indicated that have been educated in the national importance of trees. Anzac trees and shrubs were planted in honor of the following soldiers.... [See list below].....Sumptous refreshments were provided by the ladies and a very pleasant afternoon was brought to a close with the singing of the National Anthem.

Here are the soldiers, who were honoured with  a tree. I have listed their Service Numbers (SN) so you can look up their full record on the National Archives of Australia  Some of these soldiers have  a Clyde address, as it does appear that, early on, Clyde and Cardinia were used interchangeably for the same area. 

Allars, Sydney George  (SN 816)   
Allars, William Stanley (SN 817)
Sydney and William both enlisted on January 29, 1916. Sydney was 22 and William was 19. They were both farm labourers. Sydney Returned to Australia December 21, 1918 and William Died of Wounds received, whilst fighting in France, on  May 2, 1917.  The boys were the sons of Alfred Charles and Emily (nee Osment) Allars of Clyde.

Andrews, Cecil (SN 2123)  Cecil was a 26 year old farmer when he enlisted on May 1, 1916. His address on the Embarkation Roll was Dalmore and his next of kin was his mother, Emily, of Mordialloc. Cecil was Killed in Action in France on October 16, 1917.  I have written more about Cecil on my post on Dalmore soldiers, here.

Bell, Thomas Stanley (SN 3773) Thomas was a 23 year old labourer when he enlisted on August 12, 1915. His next of kin was his mother, Mary Ann Bell, whose address was St Germains, Clyde. A notation on his file said that his father was 'not recognized'. Thomas Returned to Australia October 18, 1917 and was discharged on medical grounds in January 1918 - Gun shot wound to the thorax.

Conroy, John Patrick (SN 1123 and  2146)  John wasn't honoured with a tree but he was mentioned in the article below (between the entries for Dudley Hill and Charles Hobart, or read the article here) when his family members received an 'illuminated certificate' at a ceremony to honor Cardinia soldiers - so we will include him in this post.  John was a 32 year old Railway Repairer when he enlisted on September 28, 1914. His next of kin was his sister, Johanna Conroy, of Cranbourne. John was wounded at Gallipoli in April 1915 and was sent back to Australia, then re-enlisted and was sent back overseas and arrived in England in September 1916.  He was Killed in Action in France on September 26, 1917.

John Conroy wrote this letter to his sisters and it was published in the South Bourke and Mornington Journal, June 24 1915.

Duff, Charles Alexander (SN 859 and 237)  Charles enlisted on May 31, 1915 at the age of 19, then returned to Australia because of illness and the enlisted again May 16, 1916 when he was 20. Charles was Killed in Action in Belgium June 8, 1917.
Duff, William Vere Hobart (SN 860)  William enlisted on January 6, 1916 aged 23. His next of kin was his wife, Brenda, of East Malvern. William Returned to Australia on January 10, 1918.
Charles and William were the sons of  William Tucker Duff and Alice Laura Constance Beauchamp Hobart to give her her full name. Alice  (born 1867) was the daughter of  Charles and Rhoda (nee Withers) Hobart and thus the sister of  Charles Hobart, listed below.
The boys were also the  grandsons of the Reverend Alexander Duff and his wife, Annie Tucker.  Another son of the Reverend Duff, Walter, married Eva Sharp, who I assume is connected to Henry Sharp, listed below, possibly his aunty.  You can read more about the Duff family in the information about Henry Sharp, listed below. 

Duggan, Raymond Stacey (SN 409) Raymond enlisted on May 16, 1916, he was a 26 year old farmer and his address was Tooradin. Whist he was still overseas he married Violet Foster in England in September 1918. Raymond Returned to Australia August 8, 1919.

Hardy,  Horace Robert (SN 19995)   Horace enlisted on June 20, 1917 at the age of 21. He Returned to Australia July 13, 1919. Horace was the son of William John Hardy (c. 1855 - 1940) and  Sophia Wells Cadd (1856 - 1919) of Dalmore. His paternal grandparents, Emling and Emily (nee Gregory) Hardy took up land at Clyde North in 1856 - Hardy Road is named after the family. His maternal grandparents were Thomas and Sarah (nee Wells) Cadd who took up land at Clyde in 1862.

Henry, Alexander St Leger  (SN 5574)  Alexander enlisted on August 31, 1915 at the age of 23. He was a grazier and his next of kin was his father, John, of Pakenham. Alexander Returned to Australia May 20 1919. Alexander was the son of John and Vinie (nee Forrest also called Levina and Lavinia) Henry.  They had the property, Doneraille, at Pakenham. You can read John's obituary which includes a bit of family history, here.  John Henry was the son of Robert Henry who had the Cardinia Creek No.1 run of 5,120 acres from October 1842 until May 1851. You can read about the family here

Death notice of Alexander's grandfather, Robert Henry in The Argus April 19, 1873.

Hill, Graham John Dudley Bowman (SN 1574)   Looking at the article below, it appears that this man was known as Dudley, so that's what we will call him.  Dudley enlisted on September 6, 1915. He was  a 22 year old farmer and he Returned to Australia March 9, 1919. Dudley was granted a Soldier Settlement farm after the War, you can read his file here, on the Battle to Farm website. Dudley was the son of Cr Simpson Hill, mentioned in the article at the start of this post.
Cr Simpson Hill had two sons who went to war  and both had their address as Dalmore. The younger son, Arthur aged 18, enlisted on  June 11, 1918. Arthur's full name Arthur George Leonard Curnow Hill (SN 61869). He was sent overseas to England, but was not involved in any fighting and Returned to Australia September 22, 1919.
As a matter of interest, Cr Simpson Hill had also enlisted. His Service Number was  V21471 and he enlisted on February 16, 1916. His next of kin was naturally his wife, Charlotte. His occupation was Engine driver/Engineer. He was discharged on June 22, 1916 as he was unfit for service. He stated his age on enlistment as 44, but a notation on the file says 'is obviously very much over age' and lists his age as 56!

This article from August 1, 1918 reports on the very large gathering at
Cardinia on Thursday, July 18, the occasion being a welcome home and presentation of inscribed gold medals, gift of the residents of Cardinia, to three returned soldiers, who had  enlisted from this district, and illuminated certificates presented by the Cranbourne shire, to these and relatives of those who are still on active service. 

South Bourke and Mornington Journal August 1, 1918

Hobart, Charles Guy (SN 2424) Charles was 35 when he enlisted on June 5, 1916. His occupation was farmer but his address was East Malvern and his wife, Ann, who was his next of kin lived at Northcote. Charles is listed in the Electoral Roll at Clyde in 1909. Charles (born 1881) was the son of  Charles and Rhoda (nee Withers) Hobart and he is the uncle of Charles and William Duff, listed above.  Returned to Australia February 19, 1919.  

Lecky, James Alexander (SN 19922)  James enlisted on February 25, 1916 at the age of 25. He died of 'wounds  received in action' in France on November 14, 1918. The wound was a gun shot wound to the chest, which he sustained on October 25 1918.
Lecky, William Mervyn  (SN 6612) William enlisted on June 15, 1915 aged 20. He was killed in Action in France on September 1, 1918.
James and William were the sons of James Lecky of Cardinia Park in Officer. James (1841 to 1939) was a Cranbourne Shire Councillor from 1876 until 1905.  Their grandfather, also James (1802 to 1884) had taken up the Gin Gin Bean Run (later named Cardinia Park) at Officer in 1854 and he was a member of the Cranbourne Road Board and the Cranbourne Shire from 1860 until 1881.  Lecky Road in Officer/Pakenham  is named for the family. James and William are also listed on the Cranbourne Presbyterian Church Honor Board.

Lee, W  Not sure who this is. The book 'Look to the Rising Sun:  a history of Cardinia and District' by Eileen Williams and Jewel Beard lists a Bill Lee, who had  a sheep property and was known as Cocky Lee. The booklet 'A Clyde History' by John Campbell lists a  Lee as owning land in Muddy Gates Lanes. Then the Electoral Roll for 1914 has Harry and Gertrude May Lees at Clyde. So is W. Lee the William Lee known as Cocky Lee? Or Cocky Lee's son? Is William Lee the same Lee as the land owner from Muddy Gates Lane? Is William Lee connected to Harry Lees and the paper made a mistake with the spelling of the surname?  Many questions, but I have no answers

Moxon, Albert (SN 3342) Albert was 23 when he enlisted in July 7, 1915. Albert Returned to Australia September 27, 1917 and was discharged on medical grounds in the December due to  a fractured left ankle.
Moxon, George William (SN 2726) George enlisted on September 1, 1916 at the age of 22. George Returned to Australia July 24, 1919.
Albert and George were both farmers and had been born in Warrnambool. Their next of kin was their father, George, who in 1915, when Albert enlisted, had his address as Clyde. In 1916 when George enlisted the father's address was Chelsea.

Osborne, E.O  I am not sure who this is.  I can't find an E.O Osborne/Osborn or an E. C Osborne/Osborn or even an E.U Osborne/Osborn who enlisted. There is a Henry Houston Osborne listed in the Electoral Roll at Clyde from 1912 to 1926. His occupation was farm manager. There was a James Osborne - farmer, also listed at Clyde from 1912 to 1918. They were brothers - James died 1918 aged 59 and Henry died 1944 aged 84 - the sons of James and Esther (nee Houston) Osborne. According to James' death notice he wasn't married and had no children.  Henry married Leila Caroline Kennedy in 1895 - but can't find any record that they had children - and she was 35 when they married - so I don't believe that E.O Osborne is their child. As a matter of interest Henry served in the Boer War in the 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles, he was a Lieutenant.  I feel that E.O Osborne is somehow connected to Henry or James but I don't know how - maybe a nephew.

Patterson, Alexander Twigg.  Captain Alexander Patterson enlisted on March 27, 1916. His next of kin was his mother, Elizabeth, of Mary Street in Hawthorn. He was nearly 27 years old and was already a member of the Military Forces of the Commonwealth, having joined in August 1910. He Returned to Australia July 26, 1919. After the War he  lived at Bondoola, near Yeppoon and Rockhampton in Queensland.  Alexander Twigg Patterson was the son of Alexander David Patterson and his wife, Elizabeth Harvey Twigg, who were married in April 1886 - the wedding notice is below. Alexander David Patterson (1858 - 1920)  was the son of Alexander Patterson (1813 - 1896) and Marion McMurtrie (1816 - 1889). This Alexander Patterson is considered to be the 'father of modern Cranbourne'  and took up the St Germains Estate in 1850.

The wedding notice of Alexander's parents from The Argus May 1, 1886

Reeves, Albert Reginald (SN 629) I believe that this is Albert Reginald Reeves as he is the only A.R Reeves I can find who enlisted. Albert was farm labourer, so could have worked on a local farm, but I can't find  a specific local connection.  He enlisted on July 20, 1915 at the age of one month off 23 years of age. He was born in Essex in England and his next of kin was his father, who also lived in Essex. Albert Returned to Australia on April 19, 1919. Albert is also listed on the Cranbourne Presbyterian Church Honor Board.

Sharp, Henry James Duff (SN 5629) Although listed as G. Sharp in the newspaper article I believe Henry is the correct person. Henry was born at Clyde, attended Clyde North State School and was  the son of Henry Clark Sharp, who was a Cranbourne Shire Councillor from 1898 to 1903. Henry Senior and Junior were both living in New South Wales when Henry Junior enlisted on January 16, 1916 at  the age if 25. He was an Accountant. Henry was Killed in Action in France on February 28, 1917.  Henry's mother was Emily Eva Duff (1859 - 1938) she was the daughter of  Robert Duff and his wife Margaret, who was also a Duff. Robert and Margaret operated the Cranbourne Inn, in Cranbourne, from around 1860. In 1861 Robert died and Margaret married Edward Tucker and they ran the Hotel. Robert Duff was the brother of the Reverend Alexander Duff. You can read about the Duff and Tucker families, here.

Smith, Bruce (SN 408) 
Smith, Hugh Carruthers (SN 405)  Bruce and Hugh both enlisted on enlisted on March 6, 1916, Bruce was 27 and Hugh was 28. Bruce was a Dairy Produce Merchant and Hugh was a farmer.  Bruce Returned to Australia July 27 1917 and was discharged on medical grounds suffering from chronic pleurisy. Hugh Returned to Australia June 12, 1919. The boys were born at Devenish to Frank Smith and Mary Doolan, their father had died at the time of their enlistment, so their mother, Mary, was their next of kin and her address was Clyde.

Sumpton, Henry (SN 1827) Mr Sumpton, the Head Teacher at Cardinia State School who organised the planting of the trees had also served in the War. He was 21 when he enlisted on December 22, 1914. His next of kin was his mother who lived in Moreland. Henry was at Gallipoli and he caught Typhoid, also called Enteric fever. He Returned to Australia January 3 1916 and was discharged on medical grounds in May 1916. He then took up his appointment at the Cardinia School, however died tragically in a house fire on September 9, 1917 at the age of 23. Henry boarded with Mrs Caroline Jackson of Cardinia and the Inquest found that a kerosene lamp was 'upset', this caused the lamp to explode and the room (lined with hessian and paper) caught fire and spread to the entire house which was destroyed. It was found that Henry died of suffocation and burns received in the fire. A report in the South Bourke and Mornington Journal of September 20, 1917 had this to say about Henry -  He was highly respected by parents and scholars, and the children loved him. His amiable and generous disposition was appreciated by all with whom he came in contact and his many friends mourn their loss. 

Wall, Arthur Herbert (SN - nil) Arthur enlisted on June 3, 1916 at the age of 23 and he died of meningitis on July 14, 1916 whilst still in training camp. Arthur was born in Wunghnu near Shepparton, his next of kin was his father, Charles and his address was 'Royston', Clyde.

South Bourke and Mornington Journal July 20, 1916

Wenn, Percival James  (SN 340)  Percy enlisted on April 28, 1916 at the age of 25. He was born in Cardinia, lived in Cardinia (he was a farmer) and his next of kin was his father, John, also of Cardinia. Percy Returned to Australia April 1, 1919 and was discharged on medical grounds in June 1919 - he had suffered  a gun shot wound to the right eye. Percy's father, John, had arrived in the district in the 1860s and is the source of the name, Wenn Road. You can read his father's obituary from the South Bourke and Mornington Journal here. Percy's mother, Jane, also came from an old local family. Jane was the daughter of Anthony and Sophia (nee Cadd) Ridgway, who arrived in Cardinia in the early 1850s. 

Woods, William (SN 2728) William was 21 and  a farm labourer, when he enlisted on May 9, 1916. His address was care of William Hardy of Dalmore. His next of kin was his grandmother, Mary Woods, of Maribyrnong. He Returned to Australia January 25, 1919.  William also served in the Second World War, he enlisted at the age of  45 in January 1941 and was discharged in March 1944. William was granted a Soldier Settlement farm at Werrimull, south of Mildura, after the Great War and was living in Mildura when he enlisted in 1941. You can read his Soldier Settler file, here.

Thursday, December 21, 2017

Koo Wee Rup Memorial Hospital plaque

On May 24, 1923 the Fallen Soldiers Memorial Hospital was opened in Station Street, Koo Wee Rup. It was opened by the Shire President, Cr E.Simpson Hill. The Hospital could accommodate medical, surgical and midwifery patients. This Hospital replaced the Bush Nursing Hospital in the town which had opened in  July 1918. The Fallen Soldiers Hospital was replaced in 1955 by the Western Port Memorial Hospital, which was built in Rossiter Road. 

The Fallen Soldiers Memorial Hospital in Koo Wee Rup, 1923.
Photo: Koo Wee Rup Swamp Historical Society collection.

When the Fallen Soldiers Memorial Hospital was opened, a plaque was unveiled to honour the 'fallen soldiers' and this plaque is now at the old hospital now known as the Koo Wee Rup Regional Health Centre.

Who were these soldiers? What follows is a list of the soldiers with their Service Number (SN) so you can look up their full service record on the National Archives of Australia website,

Bambury, Jacob (SN 762) Jacob was a 28 year old labourer when he enlisted on March 15, 1915. His next of kin was his brother Charles of Bayswater. Jacob was Killed in Action in France on July 19, 1916. What was his connection to Koo Wee Rup? That's  a good question and I have no idea. He is the only Bambury to have  died in the War and there are no Banburys that died in the War, and that is why I believe that Jacob is the man on the plaque. Jacob was the son of George Bambury and Harriet Simmonds or Simmons and their eight children were all born around Scoresby or Bayswater.  If you have any information on J. Banbury or J. Bambury, then please let me know.

Bethune, David Gordon   (SN 1504)  David enlisted on March 22, 1916 at the age of 25. He was a blacksmith and his father was John Bethune of Koo Wee Rup. David was Killed in Action in France on August 22, 1918.

Blake, Sydney (SN 6958) Sydney was a 21 year old farmhand when he enlisted on October 18, 1916. His address was care of Mrs H. Davies of Koo Wee Rup. He was an orphan and his next of kin, his sister Kathleen, was was a nurse at the Mental Hospital in Kew.  Sydney Died of Wounds on October 4, 1917 - he had received multiple gun shot wounds. Mrs H. Davies is I believe, Helen Davies (nee Mathison), listed in the Electoral Rolls at Koo Wee Rup along with her daughter Elizabeth Myra Davies (born 1891)

Bryan, Edward John (SN 1128)   Listed as J. Bryant on the plaque, so presumably known as John. John was 21 when he enlisted in January 23, 1915. He was a farmer.  John died of disease on August 26 1918 - malignant malaria and acute atrophy of the liver. 
Bryan, Thomas (SN 1709) Thomas enlisted at the age of 19 on November 6, 1914. His occupation was farm hand. He was Killed in Action at Gallipoli on June 24, 1915. 
John and Edward were brothers, the sons of Edmund and Margaret Bryan of Pakenham South. John had his mother listed as his next of kin and Thomas had his father as next of kin.  Margaret (nee English) died 1918 aged 56 at Pakenham and Edmund was living at Longwarry when he died in 1937.  There is a fair bit of confusion at to whether the surname is Bryan or Bryant - the boys  enlisted as Bryan, Margaret and Edmund are in the Electoral Roll as Bryan - although they are listed as Pakenham East not Pakenham South and Thomas had Pakenham East on his enlistment paper - in spite of all this I still believe that John and Thomas Bryan are actually the men listed on the Memorial plaque.

The Age  August 10, 1915.

This article shows why there may be some confusion between the names - two Thomas Bryans/Bryants from the Pakenham region. But the article does confirm that Thomas Bryant (who I actually believe was a Bryan) was from the Koo Wee Rup Swamp so that confirms the Koo Wee Rup connection. It is interesting that the father was not listed in the article.

Callanan, Michael Joseph (SN 2583) Michael enlisted on June 24 1915, he was 24 and the son of John and Lizzie Callanan of Koo Wee Rup. He had attended Five Mile (Koo Wee Rup North State School) Michael Died of Wounds received in France, on December 3, 1917.

Coates, Lawrence (SN 2623) Lawrence was born in Koo Wee Rup, the son of Lawrence and Mary Coates. He enlisted at the age of 21 on July 28, 1915 and was Killed in Action in France on August 18, 1916.

Davis, Percy (SN 96)  Percy enlisted on February 28, 1916. He was a 21 year old motor mechanic and had been working at McLeod Brothers in Sale, where he did his apprenticeship.  He was Killed Action in France on August 31, 1918. Percy's next of kin was his father, Charles of Koo Wee Rup,

Davy, John Edward  (SN 770)  Jack, as he was known as, enlisted on August 25, 1914. He was a 21 year old farmer and his next of kin was his father Arthur of North Melbourne. Jack was Killed in Action on the Gallipoli Peninsula on May 4, 1915. Jack is listed in the Electoral Roll of 1914 at Koo Wee Rup.

Garbellini, George  (SN 378)  George enlisted on February 3, 1915 aged 23. He was the son of Peter and Jane (nee Crombie)  of 'Five Mile Drain', Koo-Wee-Rup. He was Killed in Action in France on May 3 1917.

Hamilton, Henry Campbell (SN 4719) When Henry enlisted on January 14, 1916 at the age of 39 his occupation was 'Manager, General Store' and his next of kin was his 'friend', Miss O'Riordan of Koo Wee Rup. Miss Margaret O'Riordan soon became his wife as they were married on January 29, 1916 at the Catholic Church in Koo Wee Rup and they had one child together, a little girl called Mary. Henry was listed in the 1914 and 1916 Electoral as a 'horse trainer'  so I assume that he managed O'Riordans store, so did he get that job when he became sweet on Miss O'Riordan or did he get into the family business after they started going out? Perhaps being the manager of a general store provided a more consistent income than being a horse trainer. Henry Died of Wounds on October 8, 1917.

Hannaker, John (SN 5363) John enlisted at the age of 43 on February 19, 1916. He was a carpenter and his next of kin was his wife, Clara, of Koo Wee Rup. John  was Killed in Action in Belgium on October 4, 1917. 

Martin, Charles Richard  (SN 3197) Richard enlisted on October 18, 1916, aged 32. He was a farmer from Koo Wee Rup and his next of kin was his brother, Isaac, of Harford in Tasmania, which was also where Richard was born. Richard was Killed in Action in France on April 4, 1918. 

Osborn, George Sydney (SN 2933)  Although listed as C. Osborne on the memorial plaque, I believe this is actually George who enlisted at the age of 21 on October 3, 1916. He was from Koo Wee Rup and his parents were George and Mary Osborn. George Died of Wounds on November 6, 1917. Osborn Road between Koo Wee Rup and Bayles is named after the family. George's brother Percy was a cyclist of some note and competed in the 1928 Tour de France with  Hubert Opperman, Ern Bainbridge, and Harry Watson. 

O'Shea, John (SN 3350)  John was born in Koo Wee Rup and his next of kin was his father, Michael, also of Koo Wee Rup, however when he enlisted at the age of 21 on October 25, 1917 he was living at Balldale (north of Corowa)  in New South Wales. John Died of Wounds August 7, 1918. 

Rundle, James  (SN 4758) James was a 31 year old Theatrical Agent when he enlisted on September 24, 1915 - not an occupation you see listed very often. His next of kin was initially his mother,  Jessie McDonald Rundle, of Koo Wee Rup and later his wife Margaret.  James Died of Wounds on November 14, 1916.  

Slocombe, Bernard Griffiths (SN 6592) Listed as J. Slocombe but I believe that this is Bernard Slocombe who was a 22 year old farm hand when he enlisted on March 6, 1916.  His next of kin was his wife, Margaret, from Koo Wee Rup, although she had various addresses listed at various times many up in the Buchan area, which is where Bernard was born.  Bernard was Killed in Action in France on October 4, 1917.  Margaret (nee Hopkins) then married Arthur Edwin Charman  in 1920, at one stage before her marriage to Arthur her address was c/o Mr S Charman of Koo Wee Rup. This was Stephen Charman, the father of Arthur and Margaret's uncle and thus her second husband was her first cousin (not so unusual for those times) 

Here's some Charman family history - Stephen Charman was an early settler in Mordialloc (Charman Road is named after the family) He and his first wife, Harriett,  had arrived in Victoria in 1842. Harriet died and in 1852 Stephen married Mary Ann Gettens nee Rees, a widow with five children. Stephen and Mary Ann had a number of children together including Stephen Herbert Charman born in 1856 and Frances Maria Charman born in 1857.  Stephen Herbert Charman married Mary Ward in 1875 and had a number of children including Arthur Edwin in 1886. Frances Maria married William Hopkins in 1895 and had (amongst others) Margaret born 1897, the wife of Bernard Slocombe. The City of Kingston local history website has more information on the Charman family

Williams, Arthur Carter (SN 147) Arthur enlisted on October 1, 1914,  he was a 26 year old farmer and his next of kin was his step father, William George Williams.  There is another enlistment paper dated June 10, 1915 and his next of kin was his mother, Jessie Charlotte Williams.  Arthur was Killed in Action in France  on July 8, 1918.  

Form in Arthur's file listing the location of his Will.
National Archives of Australia 
First Australian Imperial Force Personnel Dossiers, 1914-1920

What was his Koo Wee Rup connection? His Roll of Honour circular that the family filled out has Koo Wee Rup listed as the answer to the question 'With what town or district in Australia was his name chiefly connected?' so clearly the family had some connection to the town. The same form says his step father 'but regarded as his real father' was a retired State School teacher, so he was possibly a teacher at Koo Wee Rup. Arthur was born in Stawell, his real father was Joshua Whitby Carter and his mother had married his step father in 1894 - so I don't feel that Joshua was the Koo Wee Rup connection.  In Arthur's enlistment papers it says that his Will was with Miss Alice Thewlis of Pakenham.  Was Alice his girl friend or financee?  Alice (born 1893) was the daughter of James and Susannah (nee Young) Thewlis who had arrived in Pakenham from Euroa around 1912.  Her brother Syd Thewlis was later a Shire of Berwick Councillor. So I am assuming that Arthur farmed in the Pakenham/Koo Wee Rup area and that Alice was his girlfriend.

Woods, Charles Gordon (SN 2252)  Charles was a 20 year grocer when he enlisted on April 14, 1915 - four months later he was Killed in Action at Lone Pine on the Gallipoli Peninsula - the date was listed as August the 8th or 9th, 1915. His next of kin was his father, Charles, of Essendon. Charles' connection to Koo Wee Rup is explained in this article which appeared in the Lang Lang Guardian of September 22, 1915. It's a bit hard to read, so I have transcribed it, below.

Lang Lang Guardian September 22, 1915

Amongst the Fallen - Private Woods
We deeply regret to record the death in action at the Dardanelles of one of our Koo Wee Rup boys, Pte Charles Gordon Woods, son of Mr & Mrs C. Woods of Essendon and nephew of Mr and Mrs Stephens of Koo Wee Rup and Mr and Mrs Christin of Dalmore. He offered his services about six months ago and was not then accepted, but shortly afterwards, again offered himself and was passed.  He was in camp at Broadmeadows and was afterwards transferred to Seymour, in the 7th Battalion, 6th Reinforcements. He left for Egypt in June and in a letter received from him, dated July 14, he gave a very interesting description of his travels in that land. Again in a letter dated 30th August he mentioned he was sailing for the Front on September 1st so that he could not have been at the Front more than two or three days when he fell for his Country. After leaving School he went to work in The Age office but this did not agree with his health and about four years ago he came to his uncle, Mr Stephens at Koo Wee Rup for whom he worked up to the time he enlisted. He is the first local soldier who has fallen in his country's cause and deep feelings of regret have been expressed by his large circle of friends.

Some of the information in the article does not tally  with the facts in his service record, but that is to be expected with communications of the era. Charles, born 1894,  was the son of Charles Woods and Minnie Margaret (nee Hazlett). Minnie died the year after her son was born in 1895.  Charles' uncle and aunty, Mr and Mrs Stephens, were Arthur William Stephens and his wife Frances Edith (nee Hazlett) - Charles was a storekeeper.  The other uncle and aunty, Mr and Mrs Christin,  were actually Samuel Kerr Christie and his wife Rebecca Evelyn (nee Hazlett) - Samuel was a farmer of Dalmore. 

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Conscription Referendum of December 1917

The second Conscription Referendum took place one hundred years ago December 20, 1917. The question asked was 'Are you in favour of the proposal of the Commonwealth Government for reinforcing the Commonwealth Forces overseas?' The result was1,015,159 in favour and 1,181,747 against*  The Referendum was in response to the a decline in volunteers and requests from the British Government to supply more troops. This was the second referendum on the issue of compulsory conscription that would have seen the conscripts serve overseas. The first one was on October 28, 1916 and it was also defeated and after these two defeats the  Prime Minister, William Morris Hughes, did not try for the third time.

Here's a few local reports about the 1917 conscription debate. There were more reports and longer reports on meetings favouring the Yes case than the No case in the local papers, so that may indicate what side the local publishers and the local public were on.

South Bourke & Mornington Journal December 6 1917

A pro conscription held at the Rechabite Hall at Berwick was well attended.

South Bourke & Mornington Journal  December 6, 1917

At this meeting at the Dandenong Town Hall, Miss  Martin made an impassioned speech in favour of the Yes vote. This is Miss Martin's speech in full from the article - which is a good summary of the Yes case and some of the issues raised during the debate -  nationalism, support for England and alluding to the sectarian nature of the debate where the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, Daniel Mannix, campaigned strongly against conscription. I presume Miss Martin was the daughter of G.W Martin, President of the Shire of Berwick who was also a guest speaker, this was George Wilson Martin of Beaconsfield Upper, it's a shame we don't know Miss Martin's first name.

On Monday evening, at the Dandenong Town Hall, a meeting was held, when speeches in favor of conscription were made by Miss Martin, Mr Fox, and Mr G. W. Martin. There was a large attendance, and the president of the Dandenong shire (Cr Colenso) occupied the chair, and introduced the various speakers.
Miss Martin said that, although it was not a political question, the people had to decide the most serious question as to whether they would conscript themselves - they had to determine whether Australia would continue as a part of the Empire, and remain true to the boys at the front. When those boys had enlisted, they had not considered whether their comrades were of the same creed, but unfortunately the people of Australia were taking such matters into consideration at the present time. She invited those opposed to conscription to provide some alternative before the 20th, as up to date they only had the voluntary system. She had addressed the electors at the Dandenong market, in the interests of recruiting, and had afterwards appealed to Mr Tudor, the head of the anti conscription movement, but had gained no assistance, nor from Dr Maloney, who informed her that the Official Labor Party did not favor sending men from Australia to fight. Such men, who were opposed to conscription, should have helped the volunteer movement, but had failed to do so. Married men had been forced to enlist because the single ones had failed to do so, and also had the audacity to remain behind and occupy the married men's positions. It was said that there were plenty of men in England, and therefore recruits were not required, but the figures which she would quote proved otherwise. It was cruel and wicked to ask women to vote on a question of this kind, but British women had proved themselves brave before, and would not flinch on this occasion, and would carry the proposition through on the 20th (applause) Men remained behind and allowed boys to fight for the country. Reinforcements were badly needed, for the Australian army was badly placed in comparison with the Allied armies, and therefore conscription was justified in order to gain assistance for the boys at the front. The alternative was to pull out of the war, which would be worse than Russia had done. If that happened,Australia would not be entitled to protection from the British army and navy, and would have to depend upon its own resources a protective policy and an undeveloped cadet system. The financial assistance, rendered Australia by Great Britain, should not be overlooked, re purchasing the products of the  Commonwealth, and she appealed to them not to be led by Mr Tudor, but to vote " Yes" on the 20th (applause).

Lang Lang Guardian  December 8, 1917

This report shows that a Yes meeting at Lang Lang went off relatively well, however the Yes case was met by noisy resistance at Koo Wee Rup and egg throwing!

Dandenong Advertiser December 20 1917

Clearly the Upper Beaconsfield correspondent for the Dandenong Journal was a Yes voter, going from this snippet.

Dandenong Advertiser December 20, 1917

Iona residents were  of the No persuasion. You can read about Frank Brennan here - he was a Catholic, a Labour Party politician, a Pacifist and an interesting and complex man. 

*Information from the National Archives of Australia

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Australian Women's National League

During the Great War many groups raised funds for the war effort, including the Australian Women's National League (AWNL). There is a description on the Australian Women's Register of the group (you can read the full article here)  - The Australian Women's National League (AWNL) was a conservative women's organisation established in 1904 to support the monarchy and empire, to combat socialism, educate women in politics and safeguard the interests of the home, women and children. It aimed to garner the votes of newly enfranchised women for non-Labor political groups espousing free trade and anti-socialist sentiments, with considerable organisational success. At its peak, it was the largest and arguably the most influential women's organisation in the country. By 1914 the AWNL claimed 52,000 members in three states. Closely associated with the United Australia Party, the financial and organisational support of the League was a key factor in the foundation of the Australian Liberal Party in 1944. At this point, the majority of members reconstituted themselves as the Women's Section of the Liberal Party. The League continued in a much reduced state.

During the War local branches operated at Berwick, Cranbourne, Pakenham Upper, Officer and Nar Nar Goon - they may well  have operated in other towns however I couldn't  find  any mention of this in local newspapers. 

Dandenong Advertiser  September 13, 1917

This is a report of the 1917 Annual General Meeting of the Nar Nar Goon branch of the Australian Women's National League. Mrs E.A Latta is Mrs Edgar Atherton Latta, born Leila Startup.  John Startup had  taken up the Mount Ararat Station at Nar Nar Goon in 1854 which had at one time the 'largest fenced grazing paddock' in Victoria - his land went from near Pakenham to Drouin. John later acquired property (336 acres)  on the corner of Bald Hill Road and Mt Ararat Road, the property was known as Oaklands and was where Leila was living at the time of her marriage. The Lattas were also early settlers in the area and the family is the source of the name Latta Road in Nar Nar Goon. Phillip and Michael Mulcare were also early landowners and the first subdivision of the Nar Nar Goon township on the south side of the railway was of Michael Mulcare's land. This is the source of the name Mulcare Road.  There is a James Mulcare and a James Raleigh Mulcare in the Electoral at Nar Nar Goon at this time, so one of them is the husband of Mrs J. Mulcare but not sure which or what her own name is.  Miss Jean Grey is possibly connected to the Grey family listed in the book From Bullock Tracks to Bitumen as an early Nar Nar Goon family.

Dandenong Advertiser Aug 24, 1916

Not surprising that, as the AWNL  is described as a conservative women's group, local members tended to be from the 'well off' strata of society.  Mrs A. Nash, mentioned above in the Cranbourne group was Mrs Albert Nash or Mary Maud Nash to give her her own name. Mrs Nash was convenor of the Cranbourne Red Cross branch and was well connected to the Grices and the Ryans - you can read about the Cranbourne Red Cross and Mrs Nash's illustrious family here. Mrs A.E Brunt was Ellen Brunt, nee Carter, the wife of Andrew Edgar Brunt. Andrew was a son of Ralph Brunt, who had one thousand acres on the Cardinia Creek. He is the source of the name Brunt Road in Officer.  Ralph's cousin, William, had the Spring Villa property at Cranbourne (where the Settlement Hotel is now located) and is the source of the name Brunt Street in Cranbourne. Mrs J. B Wilson was the wife of James Brisbane Wilson, of Lyndhurst, the son of William and Euphemia (nee Brisbane) Wilson - Berwick pioneers. Mrs Wilson was born Margaret Ballanytne. 

Berwick Shire News July 7, 1915

As with the Cranbourne branch of the AWNL the Berwick branch was also made up of women involved with the Red Cross - Mrs Scott Sharp, Mrs Pearson, Mrs Beaumont and Mrs Wilson. You can read about these women here. The other women listed are  Mercy Jane Davy  (nee Jacka) of Kippenross (later called Brentwood) in Berwick, you can read about the Davy family here.  Mercy's husband Humphrey had died in 1913. Mrs Jarrett was Eleanor Jarrett (nee Speeding), wife of William Henry Jarrett of Harkaway - their occupations in the 1915 Electoral Roll are listed as 'independent means.' Ogilvy - Mesdame Ogilvy would be a connection to Mr James Ogilvy, described in the Early Days of Berwick, as 'the son of Melbourne's earliest solicitors, who was enrolled  as one of the first pupils when Scotch College opened'. He lived on Buchanan's Road. Mesdame Sturtevant would be Margaret Sturtevant, the wife of Buxton Sturtevant listed in the Electoral Roll as an Electoplater.  The Early Days of Berwick also gives us some information on the Mesdame Tetley - she would be a connection to William Tetley, described as 'an old Harrovian, who lived at the eastern end on Buchanans Road'

What did the AWNL do?  Mrs Watson Robertson of the Central Branch addressed the Berwick Branch in May 1916 and this is some of what she said - Since the outbreak of war politics had been set aside and members had devoted their energies to patriotic work. Their motto was 'For God and Country'  and they were giving their support to many patriotic movements.  They had given four motor ambulances, and two were in Egypt and two in England.  After buying the ambulances there was a surplus, and this formed the nucleus of what is now the League's War Fund.  On a special gift day arranged last year over seven tons weight of goods were received. All the branches were contributing to the war fund, and the Central committee had from this been able to make the following donations : Belgian Relief Fund, £100; Red Cross (France), £20; towards a motor ambulance for Broadmeadows, £50  Lady Stanley's Recreation Hall, Broadmeadows, £10; Servian [i.e. Serbian] Fund; £10 10s; milk for Belgian babies, £10; Bed at Base Hospital, £25; and to the Lady Mayoress' League, £87 18s. For the Nurses they had sent one gross of Atkinson's Eau de Cologne and 15 dozen tins of Cadbury's chocolate. The sum of £250 had been given to the Y.M.C.A., £10 to. the Y.M.C A. Tent. £10 to the French Babies' Fund, £25 for French Motor Ambulance, and £25 to the Lady Mayoress' Patriotic Fund.  The sum of £2,336 had been collected to provide milk for the soldiers in the trenches, and 100 cases of 40 tins each were sent by every transport that could take them. Many gifts were sent to the soldiers at Xmas.

Berwick Shire News May 3 1916

Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Tynong grove planted in honour of local soldiers

A grove  'to honour the men who had gone from the district to the Great War' was planted at the Tynong State School to celebrate Arbor Day on July 6, 1917.  There was a report on this event in the Dandenong Advertiser of July 12, 1917.   You can read the full report here and I have transcribed it,  below. 

 The Arbor Day proceedings at the school were marked by the planting of a grove in honor of the men who have gone from the district to the Great War. Mr.W. S. Keast, M.L.A. attended, and was welcomed on behalf of the residents by Mr T. W. Cunningham, chairman of the School Committee and President of the Progress Association. Mr Keast, in the course of his remarks, said that he was pleased and proud to be present on the occasion. Nothing was too good for the men who had gone to fight the Empire's battles, and it would be the duty of the Federal and State Government to do the best possible for them. He had been pleased to learn how well the pupils of the school had been working for the War Relief Funds, and to show his appreciation of their efforts he would be pleased to forward a cheque for a pound, and another for a similar amount when the school fund reached 100 pounds.  He recognised also the splendid work being done by the ladies of the Red Cross Societies. It was the first time he had been present on an occasion such as this, and he was pleased to pronounce the first acre of the grove well and truly planted. Mr T. Gleeson, in proposing a vote, of thanks to Mr Keast, mentioned his ever willingness to assist in all matters for the welfare of the district, and the appreciation of those present for his assistance on that day. Subsequently trees were planted to: Pte. E. Bullock, Pte.R. Brown, Pte. Bourke, Trooper Coombs, Pte. L. Doherty, Pte. F. Doherty, Corporal L. Gordon, Gunner Harris (killed in action), Pte. J. Hargraves, Pte. V. Jones, Pte. C. Lamb, Pte. Leeson, Trooper Madden, Ptes. P. and L. Orrocks (killed in action), Pte. L. Orde, Pte.W. Rowe, Pte. J. McQualter, Pte G.Rowley, Pte. J. Robinson, Pte. F. Snow, Corporal R. Thompson, Ptes. F. and A. Weatherhead, Pte. H. Wright, Pte. T. White, and Pte. T. Whiston. The fencing of the grove was nearly completed, whilst the School Committee and helpers also further improved the school ground by planting many trees and shrubs around its border, by fencing a portion for the children's ponies and a start was made at the pipe draining of the ground. During the day's program, a talk on local timbers was given by Mr H. Weatherhead, and Mr J.H. Lord of Bunyip gave a demonstration on tree-planting. After afternoon tea, which had thoughtfully been provided by the ladies, had been served, Mr D. Danson expressed the thanks of the committee to those who had attended and made the day's proceedings such a success.

The Tynong State School, No. 2854, was closed on April 14, 1951 as it became part of Pakenham Consolidated School. The school was where St Thomas Aquinas School is now located. The same day this grove was planted, trees were also planted at the Cardinia State School in honour of local soldiers, you can read about this here.

Here are the soldiers, who were honoured with  a tree, I have had mixed success in identifying these men, so if you can help I would appreciate it. I have listed their Service Numbers (SN) so you can look up their full record on the National Archives of Australia

Bourke  Listed as Private Bourke, I don't know who this might be, but I presume he was connected to the Pakenham Bourkes -  Michael and Kitty Bourke who took up the 12,800 acre Mintons Run property in 1843 and in 1849 built the La Trobe Inn (also known as Bourke's Hotel for obvious reasons) on Toomuc Creek.

Brown, R I am not sure who this is, I cannot find a R. Brown with  a local connection.  There is a Richard Vincent Brown listed in the Electoral Roll at Tynong from 1916 to 1919 - his occupation is pensioner, so our soldier may be connected to him. 

Bullock, Ernest (SN 6291) Ernest was nearly 21 and a farmer when he enlisted on July 7, 1916.  He was born in Murrumbena and his next of kin was his mother, Mrs Mary Bullock, of Oakleigh. I assume that Ernest was living with his brother Thomas, who was a labourer from Garfield, who enlisted on the same day as Ernest.  Ernest was Killed in Action in France on October 4, 1918. Ernest and Thomas are also listed on the Garfield Honour Roll as well as the Clyde North State School Roll, where they attended school.  

Coombs, Henry Ernest (SN 4080) Henry enlisted on August 9, 1915 aged 18. His next of kin was his father, also called Henry, of Tynong and his mother was Inez (nee Ffrost). Henry Returned to Australian March 4, 1919.

Doherty, Edward Francis  (SN  1218)  Listed as F. Doherty on the memorial and known as Frank. Frank enlisted on  March 9, 1915 at the age of 26. Frank was Killed in Action on August 4, 1916. 
Doherty, Louis Michael (SN 12392).  Louis enlisted at the age of 21 on July 17, 1915. Louis returned to Australia in May 30,  1919. Frank and Louis were the sons of John Doherty, Veterinary Surgeon of  Nine Mile Road, Tynong.  Both of the men also had their occupation listed as farmer. The brothers are also listed on the Cora Lynn War Memorial

Gordon, L Corporal   You would think Corporal L. Gordon would be easy to identify, but I  can't.  I have checked every Corporal Gordon in the Nominal Rolls and none have an obvious local connection. The only Gordon I could find in the area in the Electoral Rolls was a Duncan Gordon of Bunyip in the 1909 roll. 

Hargraves, J  Private Hargraves is another mystery. I cannot find a Hargraves with a local connection. There was a Edward and Mary Hargrave at Bunyip from 1903 to 1909 in the Electoral Rolls, but that's the closest Hargraves I could find to Tynong. 

Harris, Leo  (SN 3132)  Leo enlisted on July 20, 1915 at the age of 20 and he was a farm labourer. His next of kin was his mother,  Josephine Harris of Nar Nar Goon. Leo was Killed in Action, in France, on August 9, 1916 and his name also appears on the Nar Nar Goon Honor Roll.

Gertie Brent's In Memoriam notice from The Age September 25, 1918 in honour of her fiance, Victor Jones (see below)

Jones, Victor Herbert (SN 3150)  Victor was 27 when he enlisted on July 26, 1915. His occupation was 'engine cleaning', a Railways job. His father and next of kin was William Jones of Moe who was a railway ganger, so working for the  Victorian Railways was  a family affair. As you can see from the article below, he was positioned at Tynong for some years. Victor was Killed in Action in Belgium on September 25, 1917. His will left his estate partially to his father and partly to Miss Gertie Brent of Tynong.   

Narracan Shire Advocate
November 17, 1917

Lamb, C  I don't  who this is. We know there was a Joseph Lamb at Tynong from around 1889 to 1896 - he wrote various letters to the Shire of Berwick complaining about his property being flooded and this is presumably the same Joseph Lamb, farmer,  listed in the Electoral Roll at Tynong in 1903. From 1909 to at least 1919 there was a Joseph Lamb in the Electoral Roll at Nar Nar Goon, his occupation was bootmaker. Is this the same Joseph Lamb who was the farmer?   Also, in 1919,  a Lawrence Joseph Lamb was listed as a State School teacher at Cora Lynn. It is possible that C. Lamb is connected with one of these men, but I can't work out who he is. 

Leeson  Private Leeson could be either Robert Leeson or William Leeson, the sons of Phillip and Amelia (nee Ransom) Leeson of Garfield.  Robert and William’s grandmother, Kathleen Leeson, was the licensee of the Pig & Whistle Hotel on Cannibal Creek.    
Leeson, Robert Victor  (SN 2589) Robert enlisted in Melbourne,  at 20 years of age, on June 30, 1916.   Robert Returned to Australia on December 18, 1918. 
Leeson,  William Herbert Charles  (SN 1178) William enlisted at Tynong on September 26, 1914, aged 24. William was Killed in Action on on May 2, 1915 at Gallipoli.  
William is listed on the Bunyip War Memorial and he and Robert are on the Garfield State School Honour Roll

Madden, Trooper   Trooper Madden could be either Frank or Thomas Madden. They are the sons of Thomas and Grace (nee Cook) Madden of Nar Nar Goon, although they are later listed at 9 Caroline Street, Clifton Hill.  There is also a Thomas Madden in the 1914 Electoral Roll listed at Tynong on 1914 so clearly they lived somewhere between the two towns. Frank and Thomas were both wool sorters by occupation. 
Madden, Frank  (SN 1798) Frank enlisted on January 13, 1915 at the age of 19.    Frank was awarded the Military Medal. He Returned to Australia on April 8, 1919.  
Madden, Thomas William  (SN 2232)  Thomas' address on the Embarkation Roll is Nar Nar Goon, and he was 25 years old when he enlisted on April 1, 1916. He Died of Wounds on October 17, 1917 in Belgium. 

McQualter, John Hughes (SN 3199) John enlisted on December 18, 1916 aged 23. His wife, Ellen was listed as his next of kin. They lived at Tynong.  John Returned to Australia on July 8, 1919. John  was granted a Soldier Settlement farm after the war, you can read his file here, on the Battle to Farm website.  

Orde, L   I believe this is most likely Albert Leslie Ord (SN 3889) who enlisted on August 7, 1915 aged 22. His next of kin was his father, Frederick Ord of Nar Nar Goon. There is a Frederick Thomas Ord and a Margaret Ord listed in the Electoral Roll in 1914 at Tynong, so either they had moved or else more likely lived on the border of the two towns. Albert Died of Wounds on September 25, 1916 - he was accidentally shot in the hip by another soldier who was cleaning his gun.

Orrock, Harold Augustus Alexander (SN 552)
Orrock, Percy  Newton (SN 3580)
Percy and Alex were the sons of David and Emma Orrock of Tynong and were killed within three months of each other. Alex was 20 when he enlisted on March 3, 1916, he was a farm labourer and was Killed in Action on April 22, 1917. Percy was a 28 year old Grocers Assistant when he enlisted on July 16, 1915. Corporal Orrock was Killed in Action on February 8, 1917.

Mount Wycheproof Ensign and East Wimmera Advocate May 18, 1917

Robinson, John Richard (SN 2304)  John enlisted at the age of 22 on July 7, 1915. His occupation was listed as 'Agent'.  His next of kin was his guardian, Mrs Hollingsworth of Tynong. John married Elizabeth Maskell on November 29, 1918 when he was in England and the Returned to Australia April 27, 1919.  Mrs Hollingsworth was, I believe, Julia Hollingsworth, listed in the Electoral Rolls as a storekeeper.

Rowe, W  Private W. Rowe is on the list but I can't work out who is is - there are number of W. Rowes with a Gippsland connection but no-one with a specific Tynong connection. There is a William Rowe in the Shire of Berwick Rate Books listed at Tynong, occupation farmer, around 1914;  a F.H. Rowe of Tynong  wrote  a letter to the Berwick Shire in September 1916 complaining about drainage - so Private Rowe may well be connected to either of these men. 

Rowley, George Albert  (SN 1989)  George was a 23 year old labourer and he enlisted on March 11, 1916. His next of kin was his father,  Joseph, of Tynong.  George Returned to Australia April 19, 1919 and was granted a Soldier Settlement farm, you can read his file, here.

Snow, F I can't find a Snow with a local connection. 

Thompson, Robert Henry (SN 664)  Robert enlisted on December 16, 1916 at the age of 27, he was a fireman on the Victorian Railways. His next of kin was his father, Samuel, of Tynong.  Corporal Thompson Returned to Australia January 30 1918 and was discharged on medical grounds (rheumatism) in May 1918. 

Weatherhead, Alfred (SN 1005)
Weatherhead, Fank (SN 6960)
Alf and  Frank were the sons of Horatio and Eleanor (nee Hunt) Weatherhead. In 1908 Horatio took up the lease, for saw milling purposes, of 2,000 acres at Tynong North and in December 1909 he built a mill at Wild Dog Creek, the east branch of Cannibal Creek. The family had previously lived in Lyonville.  Frank enlisted on July 8 1915 at the age of 22 and Returned to Australia on January 14, 1919. Alf enlisted at the age of 19 on February 13, 1915 and Returned to Australia March 17, 1919. 
Whiston, Julian Thomas (SN 3526)   I assume that T. Whiston is Julian Thomas Whiston, presumably called Thomas, so that's what we will call him. Thomas enlisted on August 7 1915 aged 18. He was a farmer. Thomas Died of Wounds March 21, 1918. Thomas had two brothers who also enlisted Frederick (SN 3524) and John (SN 3525) - they were the sons of Fred Whiston of Cora Lynn.  Thomas and Fred are also listed on the Bunyip War Memorial.

White, T  I am unsure who this is. There was a Robert Anthony White listed in the Electoral Roll at Tynong in 1914 so this man may possibly have  a connection to  Private White, but I don't know. 

Wright, H  This is possibly Harold Sidney Wright (SN 6407) I say this because he enlisted at Warragul on October 24, 1916 as a 22 year old and his occupation was an orchardist - and there were orchards close by at Garfield, however his address was listed as Mooroolbark on his enlistment papers. His next of kin was his father who lived in England. Harold Returned to Australia June 4, 1919. If it isn't Harold, then H. Wright may have some connection to William Wright, Railway Employee, who was listed in the 1915 Electoral Roll as living at Bunyip, there was also an Elizabeth Wright listed as well.